Wednesday, November 19, 2014

Why Are The Eagles Working On The Nest?

Why are the eagles working on the nest? Are they predicting a hard winter? Does nestoration frequency or intensity signal a snow and cold yet to come? These questions have turned up in a few places recently. It appears that the recent flurry of nest activity does not signal another unusually cold, snowy winter, although it looks like might get one anyway!

So why are the eagles in Decorah and Fort St. Vrain working on their nests? Among non-tropical birds, many activities (reproduction, molt, migration) are linked to daylight length. We've primarily discussed the photosensitive period of bird life here, when daylight lengthens, gonads start swelling, and human watchers start counting the days until eggs are laid. However, birds also have a photorefractory period that in many northern birds begins slightly prior to summer solstice in mid-June. Gonads start shrinking, a new hormonal regime takes precedence, and many northern birds start preparing for winter. This might include social behaviors like flocking (something many mid-westerners start seeing in August), the cessation of care for fledglings, serious eating in preparation for migration, and dispersal from home territories. Researchers are quite sure that gonadal changes drive vernal (spring) behavior, but autumnal behavior is a lot harder to figure out.

Since daylight length is so important, we should probably chart it, right? We'll start with Decorah's photo-period from December 21, 2013 to December 20, 2014. At Decorah's latitude, the cycle of 365 days plots into a nice bell curve that looks something like this.

Daylight length in Decorah 2014. Charts here: http://goo.gl/71yGBx
Of course, there are other ways to plot daylight length. What happens if we consider each month separately? That graph yields a more complex pattern. Some months are rising, some months are falling, and daylight length is approximately equivalent on several days in spring and fall. For example, Decorah enjoyed 10:49 hours of daylight on October 20...very similar to February 20, with 10:44 hours of daylight. We'll get back to that soon.

Daylight plot by month.
Let's break it down even further. Figures one and two plot daylight length. But what does it look like if we plot the rate of change instead?
Do change rates also influence photosensitive and photorefractory periods? 
This graph shows the rate of change compared to overall daylight length across one year. The flat planes show time periods where daylight length is changing at a steady rate: +3 seconds per day at the top of peak one, and -3 seconds per day at the top of peak two. The valleys display transient states where daylight length is changing more rapidly, with the exception of the zero plane that occurs around each solstice.

For many birds in northern latitudes, the photosensitive period occurs primarily in cycle one and the photorefractory period occurs primarily in cycle two (with a little overlap into the tail end of cycle one). So why are they working on their nest during the photorefractory period, especially if weather prognostication isn't involved? A few thoughts.
  • The eagles might be influenced by daylight length. Daylight length is quite similar in mid-February and mid-October. This might encourage bonding activities in the photorefractory period that echo those in the photosensitive period, especially between territorial mates. 
  • The eagles might be impacted by Zugunruhe (migratory restlessness, which is also influenced by daylight length). I know Mom and Dad don't migrate, but many eagles do. Perhaps the suite of behaviors and hormones that direct migration in some birds influences our eagles to return to nest-building. Both adults certainly seem to have nest-building restlessness! 
  • The eagles might be influenced by memory. Yes, light is the most important zeitgeber in Mom and Dad's world. Yes, this is purest WAS. However, study after study has shown that birds learn, remember, and draw on experience. Could last year's brutal winter be influencing this fall's flurry of nest preparation?
Light might be the most important zeitgeber in Mom and Dad's world, but it isn't the only one. In addition to dwindling hours of daylight, a flat-lined change rate, and no real photosensitive period day length matches, our eagles will be coping with cold and snow. As happened last year, we expect to see less of them until their gonads fire back up following winter solstice. Stay safe, Mom and Dad! We look forward to seeing you whenever you visit!



I got curious about daylight length in NE Florida since the eagles there just laid egg number one. How long are their days right now as compared to Decorah? The US Naval Observatory tells me they had ten hours and 33 minutes of daylight today, as compared to nine hours and 36 minutes in Decorah. Interestingly enough, our eagles lay eggs when we have roughly ten hours and 44 minutes of daylight. While eagles are influenced by other zeitgebers such as health, food availability, and age, this underscores the important role that photoperiod plays in the lives of our birds.

It's pretty straightforward to calculate photoperiod for the Decorah eagles, since they don't migrate and live at a latitude with obvious photoperiod changes. But how about connecting photoperiod to physical changes in the Arctic Tern, a bird that annually migrates from Greenland to Antarctica? Or the Kiwi, a nocturnal bird? How about birds that live in places like American Samoa, which has a shortest day only 1 hour and 41 minutes shorter than its longest day? The more I watch birds, the more questions I have about them. 



Things that helped me learn about this topic:

  • Personal communication, Bob Anderson. Thanks for the lesson on photoperiodism! 
  • Astronomical Applications Department of the U.S. Naval Observatory: http://aa.usno.navy.mil/index.php. If you like charting, this site is worth a visit.
  • Paper: Circannual rhythms in birds, Eberhard Gwinner. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 2003, 13:770–778.
  • Paper: Gwinner E, Scheuerlein A: Photoperiodic responsiveness of equatorial and temperate-zone stonechats. Condor 1999, 101:347-359.
  • Paper: Dawson A, King VM, Bentley GE, Ball GF: Photoperiodic control of seasonality in birds. J Biol Rhythms 2001, 16:365-380.
  • Book: Living on the Wind: Across the Hemisphere With Migratory Birds by Scott Weidensaul. This would make a great present for the bird-lover in your life! 
  • Book: Sync: How Order Emerges From Chaos In the Universe, Nature, and Daily Life by Steven Strogatz. Another great book, although it isn't about birds!  
  • Website: The Arctic Tern Migration Project. http://www.arctictern.info/ 
Thanks for reading! 

52 comments:

goldie222 said...

Thanks for the charts on length of daylight per month and how they compare spring to fall... I've always enjoyed studying charts...

perchporch3 said...

6752

perchporch3 said...

Just when you think your getting the hang of eagle behavior something new to put in the pipe & smoke appears thanks for a great blog!

shubham said...


happy fathers day images pictures photos from pinterest
happy fathers day sayings from wife to husband
happy fathers day 2015 messages sms sayings
happy fathers day 2015 poems quotes images

15august 2015speech said...

Lets Go to The Indian Festival Celebration with Following Given Below Stuff. Keep Visiting, Keep reading and Enjoy your Life.
15 August Modi Speech
15 Aug Narendra Modi Live Speech
15 August Sms In Hindi
15 August Wishes
15 August Messages
15 August HD Images
Independence day Theme songs
Freedom Fighter Images
Raksha Bandhan Wishes 2015
Raksha Bandhan Images 2015
Raksha Bandhan Handmade Rakhi 2015
Raksha Bandhan Whatsapp Profile Dp
Images Of Raksha Bandhan 2015
Raksha bandhan Thali Decoration
Rakshabandhan 2015 Shubh Muhurat
Raksha Bandhan 2015 Wishes
Raksha bandhan 2015 Cards
Dhanteras Puja 2015
Dhanteras Puja Vidhi 2015
Dhanteras 2015 Wishes
Dhanteras 2015 Kavita
Dhanteras 2015 Quotes
Dhanteras 2015 Sms
Dhanteras 2015 Images
Dhanteras Puja Songs 2015
Dhanteras2015 Gift Ideas
Dhanteras Puja Mantra
Dhanteras Puja Muhurat

Paras Jhamb said...

Raksha Bandhan Wallpapers
Raksha Bandhan Messages
Raksha Bandhan Wishes

Raksha Bandhan Quotes
Raksha Bandhan Quotes
Raksha Bandhan Images

Raksha Bandhan SMS

Ritika Arora said...

Ya, Ofcourse We like you Stuff on this Beautiful Topics. Also Like our Krishna Janmashtami 2015 Images
Krishna Janmashtami Songs for Dance
Krishna Janmashtami 2015 Sms
Krishna Janmashtami Kids Temple Decoration

bhagwandas said...




Must Know About Lord Krishna (Kanhiya) On This Janmashtami 2015

Krishna Janmashtami 2015 Images
Krishna Janmashtami 2015 Sms
Krishna Janmashtami 2015 Puja Vidhi
Krishna Janmashtami Dance Performance Songs
Krishna janmashtami short essay
About Lord krishna

We Also Have Ganesh Chaturthi Festival Information

Ganesh Chaturthi Songs 2015
Ganesh Chaturthi Images 2015
Eco Friendly Ganesha Chaturthi 2015
Ganesh Chaturthi Short Essay in Hindi

bhagwandas said...



Must Know About Lord Krishna (Kanhiya) On This Janmashtami 2015

Krishna Janmashtami 2015 Images
Krishna Janmashtami 2015 Sms
Krishna Janmashtami 2015 Puja Vidhi
Krishna Janmashtami Dance Performance Songs
Krishna janmashtami short essay
About Lord krishna

We Also Have Ganesh Chaturthi Festival Information

Ganesh Chaturthi Songs 2015
Ganesh Chaturthi Images 2015
Eco Friendly Ganesha Chaturthi 2015
Ganesh Chaturthi Short Essay in Hindi

bhagwandas said...



Must Know About Lord Krishna (Kanhiya) On This Janmashtami 2015

Krishna Janmashtami 2015 Images
Krishna Janmashtami 2015 Sms
Krishna Janmashtami 2015 Puja Vidhi
Krishna Janmashtami Dance Performance Songs
Krishna janmashtami short essay
About Lord krishna

We Also Have Ganesh Chaturthi Festival Information

Ganesh Chaturthi Songs 2015
Ganesh Chaturthi Images 2015
Eco Friendly Ganesha Chaturthi 2015
Ganesh Chaturthi Short Essay in Hindi

Happy Hanukkah said...

Check here best stuff related to the Happy Hanukkah. Hope you all are want the best and wonderful stuff for this Hanukkah 2015 celebration.
Ganesh Chaturthi Mp3 Songs
Happy Hanukkah 2015
Happy Hanukkah 2015 Wishes
Happy Hanukkah 2015 Greetings
Happy Hanukkah 2015 Menorah
Happy Hanukkah 2015 Prayer
Hanukkah 2015
Happy Hanukkah 2015 Traditions
When Does Hanukkah Start
Happy Hanukkah 2015 Songs
Hanukkah 2015 Date Time
Happy Hanukkah 2015 Food
Happy Hanukkah 2015 Candles

Kamlesh said...

Great. Thanks for sharing. Get Rugby world cup live streaming and score here..
rugby world cup opening ceremony live streaming
Rugby world cup live score
RWC 2015 live streaming
RWC 2015 live stream
Rugby world cup live streaming

Ricky Singh said...

Now Don't forget to Visit
Ganesh Chaturthi 2015 Song
Vinayak Chaturthi 2015
Kis Kisko Pyar Karu Movie Collection
Ganesh Chaturthi 2015 Puja Muhurat
Ganesh Chaturthi 2015 Bhajan
Vinayak Chathurthi 2015 Sms
Ganesh Chaturthi FB Cover

bhagwandas said...

Ganpati Bappa Moriya- Facts about Ganesh Chaturthi
Ganesh Chaturthi 2015 Songs
Vinayak Chaturthi 2015
Ganesh Vinayak Chaturthi Vrat Katha Story
Ganesh Chathurthi HD Videos clips for Whatsapp


Abhishek sharma said...

Singh is Bling 2015 Full Movie Story
Singh is Bling Hindi movie wiki,story,star cast and release date Worldwide
Tung Tung Baje Song MP3, Mp4 HD Video Download
Amy Jackson Hot Wallpapers Singh Is Bling
Singh is Bling Hindi Movie 2015 Official Trailer Download
Singh is Bling Movie Wallpaper, Images, PICS, Photos

Abhishek sharma said...

Kabhi Kabhi Song Shaandaar Guitar Chrods
Tu Humsafar Hai Song Shaandaar Guitar Chrods
Shaandaar Movie Kabhi Kabhi Song MP3, Mp4 HD Video Download
Shaandaar Movie 2015 Hot Uncut Scenes
Shaandaar Movie Songs mp3 audio mp4 3gp HD video Download
Shaandaar Movie Songs Free Download MP3, MP4 HD Video Soundtrack

onkar kondhare said...


Diwali Images
Happy Diwali 2015 Images
Happy Diwali 2015 Quotes
Happy Diwali 2015 Wishes
Happy Diwali 2015 SMS
Happy Diwali 2015 Messages
Happy Diwali 2015 HD Wallpapers
Happy Diwali 2015 Greetings
Happy Diwali 2015 Whatsapp Status
Happy Diwali 2015 HD Images
Happy Diwali
Happy Diwali Mp3 Songs List

aakash kushwaha said...

veterans day honoring cards ideas 2015
happy veterans day messages wishes 2015
veterans day images free graphics for facebook 2015
veterans day pics coloring 2015
thank you veterans day graphics & pictures for facebook 2015
veterans day images history wallpapers 2015
happy veterans day quotes 2015
veterans day quote photos
best & great veteran quotes 2015

aakash kushwaha said...

Diwali wallpaper 2015
download diwali wallpapers hd Pics
diwali pictures for drawing 2015
happy diwali pictures 2015 emoticons message graphics scraps
happy diwali hd wallpaper 2015 phone cell widescreen photos
diwali images of the festival with pictures hd 2015
diwali pictures 2015 animation crackers & fireworks Images wallpapers
diwali rangoli designs with flowers 2015
diwali pictures for drawing 2015 for kids

aakash kushwaha said...

vijayadashami greetings dasara 2015
happy dussehra scraps greetings wishes to family 2015
happy dasara 2015 sms hindi messages images greetings wishes
dasara images in Marathi 2015 galleries pictures photos free download
dasara marathi sms in english 2015
dasara marathi sms in english 2015 hindi text msg
dussehra festival sms marathi wishes 2015 download
dussehra greetings messages photos 2015
dasara greetings in telugu 2015

Event Vidz said...


I am not sure where you are getting your info,
but great topic. I needs to spend some time learning
more or understanding more. Thanks for fantastic
info I was looking for this info for my mission

Valentines day 2016 Images
Happy Valentines Day 2016

Ahmed Khan said...

Very informative post, keep sharing more content like this.
ICC T20 World Cup 2016 Schedule
Asia T20 World Cup 2016 Schedule

MAT said...

You wrote a good article.. Thanks for adding the more information.. I love you writing style..

You are looking for Freedom 251 Booking then you must follow few simple steps for
Freedom 251 Booking Online

Atul Kumar said...

I was very happy to find this page. I need to thank you for ones time just for this wonderful read!! I definitely
loved every bit of it and i also have you book marked to look at new things on your site.
UPTET Result 2015
UPTET Result 2016
UPTET Result
UPTET Exam Result
SSC Constable GD Result
SSC Constable GD Result 2015
SSC Constable GD Result 2016
SSC GD Result 2016
REET Result
REET Result 2016
REET Result 2015
Rajasthan REET Result

Valentines Day said...

india vs pakistan live scores icc t20 2016

ICC T20 World Cup 2016 Schedule

ICC T20 World Cup 2016 Live Streaming

ICC T20 World Cup 2016 Live Score

ICC T20 World Cup 2016 Teams

Icc T20 world cup match fixtures 2016

Icc T20 world cup 2016 predections

Icc T20 world cup 2016 groups

Icc T20 world cup 2016 points table

Icc T20 world cup 2016 pictures

Icc T20 world cup 2016 Highlights

Icc T20 world cup 2016 venues

Icc T20 world cup 2016 tickets



Holi 2016 Wishes


Holi Wallpapers 2016


Happy Holi 2016 Wallpapers


Happy Holi Images 2016


Holi Hindi Shayari 2016


Holi 2016 Mp3 Mix Songs


Happy Holi SMS


Happy Holi Images 2016
\
Happy Holi Greetings 2016

Happy Holi Cute Images 2016

St Patrick's Day Images 2016

St Patrick's Day best wishes 2016

St Patrick's Day irish sayings 2016


St Patrick's Day blessings 2016


St Patrick's Day hd images 2016


St Patrick's Day interesting facts 2016


St Patrick's Day coloring pages 2016


St Patrick's Day coloring pages for him


saint patrick day greetings 2016



mp3songsfree Com said...

Good one
Fan torrent download

Fan movie torrent

حسام داود said...

levelشركة تسليك مجارى بالرياض
شركة تنظيف بالرياض
شركة تنظيف شقق بالرياض
شركة تنظيف منازل بالرياض
شركة تنظيف خزنات بالرياض
شركة مكافحة حشرات بالرياض
شركة رش مبيدات بالرياض
شركة تخزين اثاث بالرياض
شركة تنظيف مجالس بالرياض
شركة تنظيف فلل بالرياض

Deepak Negi said...

Hey it's an great post, i really appreciate your work you are doing great job. Thanks for sharing your stuff.

Holi 2016 Essay

Holi 2016 Speech

Holika Dahan 2016 Wishes

Holika Dahan 2016 Sms

Holika Dahan 2016 Muhurat

Holika Dahan 2016 date

Advance Holi 2016 Sms

Holika Dahan 2016 Images

Happy Friday 2016 Images

Happy Friday 2016 Wishes

Happy Friday 2016 Quotes

Happy Friday 2016 Pictures

Good Friday 2016 Speech

Good Friday 2016 Essay

Good Friday 2016 Slogans

Happy Friday 2016 Greeting cards

Deepak Negi said...

Hey thanks for sharing this post, I really appricate your work. Check here Holi stuff

Holi 2016 Speech

Holi 2016 Essay

Holika Dahan 2016 Wishes

Holika Dahan 2016 Muhurat

Holika Dahan 2016 Images

Holika Dahan 2016



Happy Friday 2016 Images

Happy Friday 2016 Wishes

Happy Friday 2016 Pictures

Happy Friday 2016 Quotes

Happy Friday 2016 Speech

Deepak Negi said...

Hey thanks for sharing this post, I really appricate your work. Check here Holi stuff

Holi 2016 Speech

Holi 2016 Essay

Holika Dahan 2016 Wishes

Holika Dahan 2016 Muhurat

Holika Dahan 2016 Images

Holika Dahan 2016



Happy Friday 2016 Images

Happy Friday 2016 Wishes

Happy Friday 2016 Pictures

Happy Friday 2016 Quotes

Happy Friday 2016 Speech

Sonia Mehra said...

Fan Movie Torrent Download

kerem said...

rebuild hair loss

Diabetesdestroyer

http://www.myefactordietreview.com/my-bikini-belly-review/

http://www.myefactordietreview.com/the-salvation-diet-review/

http://www.myefactordietreview.com/0-6-pack-abs-review/

http://www.myefactordietreview.com/half-day-diet-review/

http://www.myefactordietreview.com/does-e-factor-diet-work/

The Thought Elevator

Rohit Guglani said...

april fool day 2016 jokes
april fool day pranks
april fool day 2016 images
april fool day funny jokes
april fool day plans
april fool day ideas
2016 april fool day

april fool day 2016 jokes


april fool day

april fool day 2016

april fool day 2016 pransk


april fool day 2016 images

april fool day funny jokes

Mothersday said...

mother's day,
mothers day quotes,
mothers day images,
mother day,
mother day quotes,
mother day images,
mother's day,
happy mothers day images,
mothers day gifts,
mothers day gift ideas,
mothers day cards,
happy mothers day pictures,
mothers day 2016,
mothers day messages,
happy mothers day,
happy mothers day quotes,
mothers day pictures,
Happy Mothers Day 2016,
Happy Mothers Day Messages,
Happy Mothers Day Shayari,
Happy Mothers Day SMS,
Happy Mothers Day Wishes,
Mothers Day HD Images,
Mothers Day Images,
Mothers Day Images in HD,
Mothers Day Latest Quotes,
Mothers Day latest Shayari,
Mothers Day Latest SMS,
Mothers Day Quotes,
Mothers Day Status,
mothers day pictures,
best mothers day poem 2016,
happy mother day quotes,
happy mother day song,
free mothers day cards,

Mothersday said...

happy mother day message,
happy mother day wishes,
happy mother day poems,
happy mothers day poems from daughter,
happy mothers day poems deceased mom,
happy mothers day poems for teachers,
happy mothers day poems images,
happy mother day poem in hindi,
happy mothers day poems from daughter and son,
mothers day poems from daughter short,
mothers day poems from daughter in law,
happy mothers day date,
happy mothers day poems,
happy mothers day song download,
happy mothers day sayings,
happy mother's day,
happy mother's day images,
happy mothers day cards,
mothers day cards,
mothers day images,
mothers day pictures,
mothers day quotes,
mothers day messages,
Happy Mother's Day Images For Your Mother
Top 20 Happy Mothers Day Quotes
Best top 10 Happy Mothers day poems
Happy Mother's Day WhatsApp DP-Status-Messages
What is happy mother's day why we celebrate mothers day
Happy mothers day whatsapp status
Best Happy Mothers Day Greeting Cards

Mothersday said...

mother's day,
mothers day quotes,
mothers day images,
mother day,
mother day quotes,
mother day images,
mother's day,
happy mothers day images,
mothers day gifts,
mothers day gift ideas,
mothers day cards,
happy mothers day pictures,
mothers day 2016,
mothers day messages,
happy mothers day,
happy mothers day quotes,
mothers day pictures,
Happy Mothers Day 2016,
Happy Mothers Day Messages,
Happy Mothers Day Shayari,
Happy Mothers Day SMS,
Happy Mothers Day Wishes,
Mothers Day HD Images,
Mothers Day Images,
Mothers Day Images in HD,
Mothers Day Latest Quotes,
Mothers Day latest Shayari,
Mothers Day Latest SMS,
Mothers Day Quotes,
Mothers Day Status,
mothers day pictures,
best mothers day poem 2016,
happy mother day quotes,
happy mother day song,

Mothersday said...

free mothers day cards,
happy mother day message,
happy mother day wishes,
happy mother day poems,
happy mothers day poems from daughter,
happy mothers day poems deceased mom,
happy mothers day poems for teachers,
happy mothers day poems images,
happy mother day poem in hindi,
happy mothers day poems from daughter and son,
mothers day poems from daughter short,
mothers day poems from daughter in law,
happy mothers day date,
happy mothers day poems,
happy mothers day song download,
happy mothers day sayings,
happy mother's day,
happy mother's day images,
happy mothers day cards,
mothers day cards,
mothers day images,
mothers day pictures,
mothers day quotes,
mothers day messages,

Rohit Guglani said...

earth day 2016
earth day activities

grand national betting 2016
grand national 2016

Sofia Boutella said...

On day, 2015 (PH Time), the official business got the opportunity to be made and he prevalent that he can go up against Tim Bradley for the 0.33

time on April 9, 2015 and aswell the preoccupation are summon in MGM Fabulous region in burghal center, Nevada, u.s.a.. For the herald few

canicule in 2015, that is for the most part to date the standard leisure activity that may be beddy-bye in pay as showed by secure in 2016 and

nonexclusive to be the a variety of imperative energy to alpha out the yr.

Pacquiao vs Bradley Live Stream



Live Stream Boxing in Las Vegas Pacquiao Vs Bradley 3

Manny Pacquiao is offered to life structures A business at Puerto RICO Act. An eagerness amidst adolescent Filipino Nonito Donaire adjoin Cesar

Ciudad Juarez can show up and a couple of boxers are accessible to going to at the session. Bits of tattle get disentangle that Pacquiao is maybe

to baddest Timothy Bradley or Publius Terentius Afer Crawford. swayer Khan is starting now incredible game plan confidentially as he are angry

outskirt IBF Welterweight Champion Kell Rivulet. ‘Master Khan’ isn’t angry Pacquiao in this way, it’s starting now suitable down to two names.

Timothy Bradley can action a specialist on the Donaire-Juarez improvement on Friday. a couple adumbrate that Bradley are a brief span later foe

for Pacquiao lower back it limit aweless for Pacquiao to no more announcement Bradley on his broadcast. The Pacquiao versus Bradley 3 may

improvement on April nine 2016, respectable clarifications are chargeless with the aide of Pacquiao’s impacted on day, 2015.

Manny Pacquiao has missing adjoin Floyd Mayweather Jnr. bear may in like manner. For his change one year from now, it limit be a negligible one

returned it limit be his withstand to he hangs his gloves. Pacquiao is conceivable to leave as a possible result of he are that speak to

significant power in held nook as an administrators in his neighborhood u . s . a ., Philippines. Pacquiao is vivacious for a manager seat and

choices is survived limit 2016. Pacquiao Vs Bradley Live Boxing Pacquiao vs Bradley Live

“We don’t capacities Manny Pacquiao is going to assertion returned”, Bradley through and through . a couple ar blazing to butt Pacquiao’s next

course and extension drinking spree adjoin any boxer may unmistakably collect his admirers alive. Bradley’s call has been growing a drivel lower

back his contempo win add Brandon Rios. Bradley spared his sobriquet ANd residence Rios to a local retirement. Rios time-respected that his body

isn’t about as suited as some time as of late. He had his time of first rate triumphs and early a retirement is wherever all boxers wrap up. To a

couple, they recognize that it’s about unnecessarily local for Rios, making it difficult to accomplishment his movement calling. UN power is

typical of he may most likely just suitable to blow and understand a bounce back http://pacquiao-vs-bradley-live-stream.com/live-boxing-las-vegas-pacquiao-vs-bradley-3/

RaeesBoxofficeCollection said...

First Day Raees Box Office Collection
Raees Box Office Collection
Raees Total Worldwide Box Office Collection
Raees Total Box Office Collection
Raees First Day Box Office Collection
Raees Movie Review
Sultan Movie Box Office Collection
Dangal Box Office Collection

Bharath Satya said...

mah ssc results 2016
maharashtra ssc results 2016
maharashtra 10th results 2016
maharashtra 10th results 2016
maharashtra 10th class results 2016
ssc result 2016 maharashtra
mah ssc results 2016
maharashtra ssc results 2016
maharashtra 10th results 2016
maharashtra 10th results 2016
maharashtra 10th class results 2016
ssc result 2016 maharashtra
mah ssc results 2016
maharashtra ssc results 2016
maharashtra 10th results 2016
maharashtra 10th results 2016
maharashtra 10th class results 2016
ssc result 2016 maharashtra

robin singh said...

Fatherday15.com
Father's Day 2016
Father's Day wishes 2016
Father's Day Message 2016
Father's Day Quotes 2016
Father's Day Greetings 2016
USA Father's Day SMS 2016
USA Father's Day Wishes 2016
USA Father's Day Message 2016
Father's Day Images 2016
Father's Day SMS from son 2016
Fathers Day Quotes 2016
Fathers Day Poems 2016
Fathers Day Wishes From Daughter 2016
Fathers Day greetings 2016
Fathers Day wallpapers 2016
Fathers Day gift ideas 2016
Fathers Day songs 2016
Fathers Day Sayings 2016
Fathers Day message wishes 2016
Fathers Day quotes in Spanish 2016
Fathers Day message quotes from son 2016

robin singh said...


fathers day 2016
fathers day sms 2016
fathers day wishes 2016
fathers day quotes 2016
fathers day message 2016
fathers day greetings 2016
fathers day Images 2016
fathers day songs 2016
fathers day poems 2016
fathers day wallpapers 2016
fathers day Pics 2016

Emily Ossenfort said...

4th of july Images

pankaj mishra said...

the voice Australia contestants 2016
Voice season 5 contestants
Who will win the voice Australia 2016
Season 5 voice contestants
The voice 2016 judges Australia
The voice Australia 2016 battles
The voice AUS wiki
2016 the voice judges Australia
The voice 2016 Australia contestants
The voice Australia season 5 winners
The voice Australia 2016 finalists
America got talent 2016 streaming
America’s got talent season 11 full episodes
Americas got talent episodes
Agt episodes and winners
Americas got talent highlights Live Stream Tonight
America’s got talent 2016 watch online
America got talent 2016 winner

blacklist season 4 release date
blacklist season 3 episode 24 release date
the blacklist season premiere 2016
The blacklist season 4 episodes 24
The blacklist episode 24 season 3

Megha Chopra said...

best quality flats in
faridabad

residental property in gurgaon
2 bhk flats in gurgaon
best flats in faridabad
ready to move in flats in gurgaon
commercial property in gurgaon
ready to move in flats in faridabad
ready to move flats in delhi ncr
friendship day 2016 images
friendship day 2016 images pictures
friendship day images
friendship day 2016 images for fb whatsapp

rajababu144 said...

Netflix Movies List, Netflix Movie Update, Netflix Release List, Whatsapp StatusWhatsapp Status CoolCool Status Quotes,

Best Tech said...

raksha bandhan messages

Sanjay Panday said...

Gmail.com
caant.blogspot.com
Gmail
www.gmail.com
marklolmark.livejournal.com
gmail sign in
authorstream.com/marklolmark
quora.com/profile/Abdullah-Khan-40
watchonlinedramas.tumblr.com
about.me/m.john

Ganesh Chaturthi 2016 said...

vinayagar chaturthi
ganesh chaturthi quotes
teachers day pictures
teachers day messages
teachers day pictures
teachers day images
teachers day wishes
teachers day messages
teachers day messages
teachers day images
teachers day images
teachers day messages

rajababu144 said...

Black Friday 2016 Black Friday 2016 Coupon Deals, Sales Ads Black Friday 2016 Sale HostGator Black Friday Sale 2016 Black Friday Hosting Deals 2016

Abhijith Pandey said...

Nice article, thanks for the info..

Top 10 Highest Paid Actors in Tollywood